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游戏的阶段-介绍

由:汤姆Worville

控球一直是足球争论的中心话题.

去了解占有, the most commonly used method was to look at the 分享 of passes that a team has in a game. 这就形成了在大多数得分中很常见的占有百分比. 早在2017年,OptaPro就发布了 财产的框架,展示了事件是如何联系在一起创造的 序列,和序列连在一起成 财产.

这个框架是一个分析球员和球队风格的理想工具. We can go from measuring volume of possession to being able to understand what teams do with the ball, 以及他们在做出选择时的效率.

更进一步, we can look to better underst和 different parts of a sequence that make up a team’s style of play by partitioning out the contents of a sequence (i.e. 将个别事件)转化为各自不同的事件 阶段的游戏. 要做到这一点, we created a model that adds a tag to each event in a sequence depending on its criteria of where on the field it takes place, 之前发生了什么,之后发生了什么.

该模型仍在开发中,将在2019年进行改进, 由OptaPro客户的反馈推动.  它的当前版本在 # OptaProSoccerOptaPro Konferenz今年早些时候.

 

 

现有模型是基于规则的, with the classification of events into the phases depending on whether they meet certain criteria or not.

该模型确定了以下阶段:

——过渡

——累积玩

——建立占有

-直接长传

——进攻

——设置打

足球第一

The approach used here was a ‘football first’ one, leaning on the football expertise within OptaPro.

The choice of taking a ‘football first’ approach here instead of a ‘data first’ approach is an interesting one. 当谈到将足球哲学分解成各个组成部分时, 这里面有主观性的成分. 你对过渡的定义和我的一致吗? 一个团队可以在一个序列中多次集结吗? 等等.

By creating a set of rules and tweaking them based on reviewing the data outputs and video, it allows us to better communicate how this model is created 和 reasons for each event being in a given phase. One of the key factors of getting buy-in with the use of analytical models is to ensure that you’re speaking the same language. 通过基于规则的方法, vip威尼斯登录入口可以确保给定阶段标签的原因可以被解释, and we’re using phases that we defined instead of using those created with an unsupervised model.

Taking a look at each phase in turn (although set plays have been omitted from this article), vip威尼斯登录入口可以从这个框架中了解玩家和团队级别参数.

过渡

The period between regaining possession and moving it away from pressure or establishing possession.

要点

球队希望在这些时刻建立对球的控制.

转换必须在对手控球后开始.

-不是所有的转变都是成功的.

– A team is in transition until either a pass is completed that is over a given threshold in the pass completion model; or a player is in possession of the ball for a period of time over a given threshold.

下表列出了成绩最高的运动员 网点 作为本赛季英超联赛的过渡阶段. An outlet is a player who receives a pass from one phase, therefore taking you into another. 在这个例子中, a player is rewarded with a transition outlet by receiving passes from players who are currently in transition.

 

 

从这个, we can see the value that Jorginho provides to Chelsea in his role at the centre of their midfield three. 收到35.本赛季每90次防守中有6次传球, 比英超其他任何中场球员都多, the Italian is a key option when it comes to being available to move the team out of transition and into their next phase of play.

值得注意的是, a lot of the other players listed play similar positions in the centre of midfield – receiving the ball after it’s turned over and starting attacking moves.

累积玩

球队是如何从己方半场切入并将球转移到中场的, 要么在中央,要么在外面.

要点

-特点是在己方半场控制控球.

-只能发生 一次 在模型的当前迭代中——某些东西在未来可能会改变.

-当球越过中线时,此阶段结束.

在早期 game (game state dependent) this is usually based on the team’s tactical objectives and is indicative of their preferred style of play. 

Analysing how long a team spends in each phase as a proportion of all of their phases provides us with an understanding of their style when it comes to building up.

 

 

如上图所示, we can see that Unai Emery’s Arsenal side spend the highest 分享 of time in the build-up phase. Contrasting this with some of the more direct sides in the league in the form of Cardiff, 沃特福德和伯恩利, vip威尼斯登录入口可以直接看到不同的比赛理念被采纳.

有趣的是,曼城的花费很低 分享 他们在积累阶段的总时间. 接下来看既定占有,vip威尼斯登录入口就能很好地理解为什么会这样.

建立了拥有

Having possession under control in the middle third characterised by players having time to take a couple of touches (time on the ball) or play a high number of quick passes between players.

要点

-最常见的阶段类型的球队发挥.

—包含至少属于2+触摸事件序列的事件.

-在球队成功建立后或者在球队完成转换后发生.

-也可以在定位球被取走后发生.

控球阶段是球队在中场控制球的阶段, and is the phase assigned to a large proportion of situations that take place on the field.

 

 

Interestingly, the top six of this list is comprised of the top six in the Premier League table. 在那之后, Leicester and Wolves show that their styles of play look very similar to these teams – where they look to possess the ball in the middle of the field and look to form attacks from there.

直接长玩

希望长时间击球并获得领地的球队.

要点

-包括所有直接传球(前场距离比例)75%以上的长传.

-还必须满足已建立的占有阶段事件的标准.

通常是控球队试图快速占领地盘.

直接长戏就是这样, 一个球队试图将球打向目标球员的脚或头部, 或者进入对手防守线后的空间. The leaderboard below shows the players who are most involved in these phases – either as a receiver of the ball in this phase or the maker of those sort of passes.

 

 

Steve Mounie and Sam Vokes show up here as two of the main attacking players for being on the end of Direct Long balls per 90. 另外, 像Conor Coady这样的球员的长传球倾向, David Luiz和Fabian Schär也出现了. Coady and Luiz show a tendency to play long into wide areas for advancing full-backs or wingers, 而Schär则倾向于进入更中心的区域, 在找一个目标人物,让其他人参与进来.

进攻

控制进攻三分位的.

要点

在这一阶段,球队试图进攻禁区并创造机会.

-队伍可以通过不同的路径到达攻击阶段.

一支队伍可以在进攻阶段进出.

The attacking phase takes into account all events that meet the criteria of the established possession phase but are just within the opponent’s third. A switchpoint model was used to identify the cut-off of where teams on the field look to change their approach, from passing the ball around comfortably in established possession to trying to attack the box and create a chance in the attacking phase.

下面的图表列出了带领球队的主要球员 进入攻击阶段.

 

 

两者都曾在早期的过渡时期出现过, we can now see the importance of Fernandinho and Jorginho to their respective sides further up the pitch. 这两名球员都为自己的球队把球传给进攻球员. 另外, 保罗·博格巴的重要性在这里得到了强调, 另一位被低估的贡献者也是如此.

加强对手分析和赛后分析

如本文开头所述, OptaPro’s phase of play model is still being refined 和 rules are subject to change in the near future.

Hopefully this blog provides a good glimpse of what outputs can be generated on both a team and player level, 以及他们将如何影响一个球队的表现, 赛后及未来招聘分析.

If you would like to know more about the model or have any questions relating to what we have developed so far, 请务必与vip威尼斯登录入口联系 pro@optasports.com